the vitamin that plays a role in maintaining epithelia

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Alterations in the epithelial Vitamin A plays an essential role in a large number of physiological functions that encompass vision, growth, reproduction, hematopoiesis, and immunity . 32, No. 295, No. 24, No. 2, in untreated VDR+/+ and VDR−/− mice, the TER was not significantly different. 24, No. The DSS-colitis model shares many clinical and pathological features of human ulcerative colitis with regard to ulceration and loss of barrier function (28). 110, No. This notion is supported by the observation that VDR expression is markedly induced in the colonic mucosa during mucosal recovery after DSS insult.  |  58, No. The TER in each colonic segment was measured using the Ussing chamber. Vitamin D, sometimes called the ‘sunshine vitamin’ is a fat-soluble vitamin obtained from food and made by the body when sunlight hits the skin. 6, 30 April 2018 | Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Vol. What is known about the mechanisms of dietary influences in Crohn's disease? A Practical Guide, Maternal vitamin D beneficially programs metabolic, gut and bone health of mouse male offspring in an obesogenic environment, Role of vitamin D3 combined to alginates in preventing acid and oxidative injury in cultured gastric epithelial cells, Effect of Long Noncoding RNA H19 Overexpression on Intestinal Barrier Function and Its Potential Role in the Pathogenesis of Ulcerative Colitis, Translating nutritional immunology into drug development for inflammatory bowel disease, Effect of vitamin D on gastrointestinal symptoms and health-related quality of life in irritable bowel syndrome patients: a randomized double-blind clinical trial, Oxygen metabolism and barrier regulation in the intestinal mucosa, Co-Administration of Soy Isoflavones and Vitamin D in Management of Irritable Bowel Disease, Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration is inversely associated with mucosal inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis, The Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Allergic Diseases in New Zealand Preschool Children, Psoriasis, vitamin D and the importance of the cutaneous barrier's integrity: An update, Nutrition meets the microbiome: micronutrients and the microbiota, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits corneal wound healing in an ex-vivo mouse model, Optimal vitamin D plasma levels are associated with lower bacterial DNA translocation in HIV/hepatitis c virus coinfected patients, Effect of vitamin D supplementation on inflammation: protocol for a systematic review, Flavonoids in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Review, Regional differences in vitamin D levels and incidence of food-induced anaphylaxis in South Korea, Vitamin D receptor knockout mice exhibit elongated intestinal microvilli and increased ezrin expression, Vitamin D/VDR signaling attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by maintaining the integrity of the pulmonary epithelial barrier, The Role of Vitamin D in Allergic Diseases in Children, Enhanced LL-37 expression following vitamin D supplementation in patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, Vitamin D and the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition, Abdominal tuberculosis: Diagnosis and demographics, a 10-year retrospective review from a single centre, Serum vitamin D and colonic vitamin D receptor in inflammatory bowel disease, Protective links between vitamin D, inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer, Vitamin D differentially regulates Ca(2+) is an essential ion in all organisms, where it plays a crucial role in processes ranging from the formation and maintenance of the skeleton to the temporal and spatial regulation of neuronal function. 21, No. 3, 13 September 2016 | Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, Vol. Vitamin A-regulated genes are involved in fundamental biological activities, playing an important role in supporting vision, growth, cell, and tissue differentiation, haematopoiesis and immunity. Symptom scores were determined by assessing the degree of body weight loss, stool consistency (diarrhea), and hemoccult positivity or gross blooding in each animal according to previously published methods (3). 7D). 1-2, Pharmacogenetics and Genomics, Vol. In this experiment, to reduce mortality, mice were treated with 2% DSS for 3 days and killed at days 0 (untreated), 2, and 3. Cathelicidin is induced by vitamin D in human colonic epithelial cells and promotes antimicrobial activity against E. coli. 143, No. 50, 18 September 2015 | Liver International, Vol. The cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin associates with catenins, which provide the anchorage to the actin cytoskeleton to form stable cell-to-cell contacts (5). The kidneys play an important role in regulating vitamin B(6) body homeostasis, but limited information exists regarding the mechanism of pyridoxine uptake by renal epithelial cells, and no study exists on its regulation. 4, 7 January 2012 | Current Colorectal Cancer Reports, Vol. Compromise or disruption of the intestinal barrier function causes deleterious effects and results in exposure of the host to luminal antigens and bacteria, leading to inflammation. 18, 28 November 2017 | Frontiers in Immunology, Vol. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. 1A) and developed much more severe clinical symptom scores determined on days 3 and 7 (Fig. These junction structures seal the paracellular space and regulate the permeability of the mucosal barrier. 1, 8 June 2016 | The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 26, No. Vitamin A (VitA) is a micronutrient that is crucial for maintaining vision, promoting growth and development, and protecting epithelium and mucus integrity in the body. 10, 20 September 2016 | Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. This is expected because VDR+/+ mice were resistant to this DSS dose (see Fig. κ 6C). Vitamin A (VitA) is a micronutrient that is crucial for maintaining vision, promoting growth and development, and protecting epithelium and mucus integrity in the body. Schölmerich J, Löhle E, Köttgen E, Gerok W. Hepatogastroenterology. The most critical role that vitamin A plays in the human body is _____. 6, 28 April 2018 | Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Vol. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.1994.tb01386.x. 8, No. 7E). While VDR+/+ mice were mostly resistant to 2.5% DSS, VDR−/− mice developed severe diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and marked body weight loss, leading to death in 2 wk. 5, 16 May 2012 | Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol. As shown in Fig. 6, 7 November 2016 | Journal of Food Biochemistry, Vol. What vitamin plays a role in maintaining epithelia and is required for the synthesis of visual pigments? a, control; b, 1,25(OH)2D3; c, control + DSS; d, 1,25(OH)2D3 + DSS. 1, 12 June 2012 | Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Vol. Cutaneous vitamin A levels in seborrheic keratosis, actinic keratosis, and basal cell carcinoma. a. VDR+/+ (wild-type) and VDR−/− mice in C57BL6 background were obtained by breeding VDR+/− mice (22). 126, No. The nuclei were stained with DAPI (blue). 1.Vitamin D receptor (VDR)−/− mice develop more severe dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis than VDR+/+ mice. Total cellular RNAs were extracted using TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen). 189, No. 1, 17 July 2018 | Scientific Reports, Vol. 10, No. It can also be found in supplements. Europe PMC. 8, 3 August 2017 | Physiological Reports, Vol. 89, No. The vitamin that plays a role in maintaining epithelia and is required for the synthesis of visual pigmentsis vitamin A) A. C) C. D) D. E) E. 5, 19 October 2014 | Digestive Diseases and Sciences, Vol. Under the DSS insult, however, massive ulcerations developed. Vitamins and minerals play an important role on people’s health. Coronavirus: Find the latest articles and preprints Sign in or create an account. In cell cultures, 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] markedly enhanced tight junctions formed by Caco-2 monolayers by increasing junction protein expression and TER and preserved the structural integrity of tight junctions in the presence of DSS. Experientia. 1B), and up to 70% died within 2 wk, even after DSS treatment was stopped (Fig. Repairing of damaged mucosa normally requires epithelial cell restitution, involving cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation, leading to new crypt formation (6). 318, No. 2, The American Journal of Pathology, Vol. Maternal/neonatal vitamin D deficiency: a new risk factor for necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants? 2.Effect of DSS on colonic transepithelial electric resistance (TER). To test the hypothesis that VDR is important for maintaining the mucosal barrier integrity, we compared the colonic TER of VDR+/+ and VDR−/− mice. 1, 26 November 2014 | Journal of Crohn's and Colitis, Vol. 5, 30 June 2016 | Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. Table 1. 39, No. 93, No. 11, 2 June 2015 | Digestive Diseases and Sciences, Vol. Furthermore, the fact that the colonic epithelial cells in VDR−/− mice are hyperproliferative (13) also complicates the mechanism underlying the sensitivity to DSS insult. Detached cells were washed off with PBS. By day 10, 3–4 days after DSS water was stopped, healing and reepithelization of the ulcers were apparent in VDR+/+ mice, with strong BrdU labeling in newly formed crypts surrounding the ulcers (Fig. These data are consistent with, and explain at least in part, the observation reported in the literature that vitamin D deficiency is linked to increased incidence of IBD in human population. 3 Severe ulceration in VDR−/− mice was preceded by a greater loss of intestinal transepithelial electric resistance (TER) compared with VDR+/+ mice. 10, 29 July 2015 | Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Vol. Western blot analysis was performed as described previously (21). 74, No. 36, No. 60, No. Therefore, the VDR appears to be required for mucosal repair. Another important component of the mucosal barrier is the apical and subapical intercellular junctions between the epithelial cells, namely tight junctions and adherens junctions (18). This process involves several signaling molecules such as growth factors, hormones and vitamins. Under normal conditions, VDR was highly expressed near the luminal surface of the crypt, whereas very little VDR staining was detected at the base of the crypt (Fig. These results provide evidence that vitamin C plays a role in the repression of proliferation, migration, and EMT of human lens epithelial cells by destabilizing HIF-1α. Immunomodulatory Effects of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 on TH1/TH2 Cytokines in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An 6, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes, Vol. 7A). DSS has been shown to increase mucosal permeability in mice (14). 7B). 01, 15 December 2012 | American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, Vol. Early studies have reported a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with established Crohn's disease (12, 38). One potential pathogenic factor is impaired mucosal barrier function, and intestinal hyperpermeability is common in IBD patients (11). Therefore, VDR−/− mice were much more susceptible to DSS-induced mucosal injury than VDR+/+ mice. Which of the following factors can explain why vitamin D deficiency is on the rise? 2, 3 March 2010 | Journal of Dairy Research, Vol. 9, Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, Vol. 6E). These results were consistent with the in vivo observations that the colonic TER was decreased more in VDR−/− mice than in VDR+/+ mice after DSS damage (Fig. 1984 Apr 19;310(16):1023-31. doi: 10.1056/NEJM198404193101605. 7, Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, Vol. NIH Here we provide evidence that vitamin D and the VDR play important roles in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier. After 24-h starvation in serum-free media, the monolayers were scratched with a sterile razor blade. 1, No. 6D, compare b and d). The beneficial effect of vitamin D on cell function and behavior in uremic conditions was studied in the presence of an anionic uremic toxins mixture. 2, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Vol. At this time, no obvious clinical symptoms were seen yet. 11, Current Opinion in Gastroenterology, Vol. The intestinal stem cells, located at the base of the crypt, are responsible for replenishing the epithelium through cell division and differentiation. Wiki User Answered . 7, No. Two forms of vitamin A are available in the human diet: preformed vitamin A (retinol and its esterified form, retinyl ester) and provitamin A carotenoids [ 1-5 ]. On the pathophysiology of vitamin A deficiency. TER was monitored from 0 to 210 min after the addition of DSS to the media. a and b: Hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining of “Swiss rolls” of the entire large intestine on day 7. When the siRNA-transfected cells were treated with 1,25(OH)2D3, ZO-1 failed to be induced in the VDR-siRNA-transfected cells, in contrast to the scramble siRNA-treated cells (Fig. 32, No. *P < 0.05 vs. VDR+/+. However, the role of vitamin D and/or VDR in the regulation of intestinal barrier integrity has hardly been studied. Magnification: A, ×200; B, ×400. According to the U.S. National Library of Medicine, the best way to meet your vitamin needs is to eat a balanced diet containing a variety of foods. All primers were designed according to the cDNA sequence deposited in the GenBank database. 7, 1 July 2013 | American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, Vol. 1, 21 September 2015 | Nutrients, Vol. After extensive destruction, rapid resealing of the surface epithelium is accomplished by epithelial cell restitution, proliferation, and differentiation (6). The intestinal mucosal barrier is mainly composed of epithelial cells and intercellular junctions that seal the paracellular space. 143, No. This article discusses vitamin A, including its benefits, food sources, as well as effects of deficiency and toxicity. Interestingly, whereas the TER continued to rise in the control siRNA-transfected cells, no increase in the TER was observed in VDR-siRNA-transfected cells (Fig. For avoiding illness, signs of old age and other types of health issues the need for vitamin supplements becomes inevitable. 35, No. 104, No. The animal data prompted us to use in vitro culture systems to address the mechanism underlying the protective role of VDR in intestinal barrier function. Therefore, dysregulation of junction proteins is an important pathogenic mechanism underlying the increased permeability seen in the intestinal epithelium of IBD patients. *P < 0.05 vs. VDR+/+, n = 3 or 4 of each genotype. Work over the last decade has shown that IL-22 likely plays a role in epithelial biology during infectious diseases (1 ... IL-22 Plays a Critical Role in Maintaining Epithelial Integrity During Pulmonary Infection. 47, No. 453, 24 May 2017 | Clinical & Experimental Immunology, Vol. Interestingly, 8 days after DSS (2.5%) treatment was stopped (i.e., day 15), when the crypts were in the recovery phase, VDR expression in the colon was markedly increased, and VDR positive cells were broadly distributed in the crypts from base to surface (Fig. 21, No. 40, No. IL-22 Plays a Critical Role in Maintaining Epithelial Integrity During Pulmonary Infection. 24, No. 6, Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Vol. 1D, a–d), and 10 (Fig. 20, 3 May 2018 | Journal of Crohn's and Colitis, Vol. 2, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Vol. 9, No. Confocal immunostaining and EM data confirmed the disruption of the tight junction complex by DSS treatment in VDR−/− mucosa. The integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier is preserved by the enormous regenerating capacity of the mucosal epithelium. 115, No. 6, 25 January 2011 | Nature Reviews Endocrinology, Vol. BENEFITS OF VITAMIN D. Vitamin D plays a crucial role in helping us maintain healthy bones and teeth, in muscle function and in regulating our immune system. 7, No. SW480 cells were treated with indicated doses of 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] for 24 h, and cell lysates were analyzed by Western blot analysis with antibodies against tight junction proteins (A) or adherens junction protein E-cadherin (B). 6, which shows that claudin-1, ZO-1, and E-cadherin were induced by 1,25(OH)2D3 in SW480 and Caco-2 cells. Role of vitamin A in human metabolic processes. Data were presented as means ± SD. When Caco-2 monolayers were incubated with 5% DSS, the TER gradually decreased over the following 3.5 h in the control cells; in contrast, in 1,25(OH)2D3-treated cells, the TER was moderately reduced in the beginning and fully recovered by 3.5 h (Fig. IBD, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is a major chronic disorder affecting the gastrointestinal tract in humans. (b) maintaining a healthy immune system. Hanck A. Acta Vitaminol Enzymol, 7 Suppl:5-11, 01 Jan 1985 Cited by: 4 articles | PMID: 3916046. Review. 6, A and B). Vitamin A also plays an important role in replacing worn out or old tissue with newer tissue to ensure healthy bones and teeth. C) C. D) D. E) E. To knockdown VDR, Caco-2 cells were transfected with human (h)VDR-small interfering (si)RNA and scramble siRNA using Transfectamine 2000 (Invitrogen). Danio rerio A is commonly known as the anti-infective vitamin and has an essential role in vision and cellular differentiation, the latter providing a unique core mechanism helping to explain the influence of vitamin A on epithelial barriers. 131, No. 1376, No. In VDR+/+ mice, the colon appeared intact at day 3 (not shown), and focal erosions were only occasionally seen by day 7 (Fig. 1, Journal of Investigative Dermatology, Vol. 14, No. This vitamin also plays an important role in the proteins that are part of many chemical reactions in the body. By Milos Mihajlovic, Michele Fedecostante, Miriam J Oost, Sonja K P Steenhuis, Eef G W M Lentjes, Inge Maitimu-Smeele, Manoe J Janssen, Luuk B Hilbrands and Rosalinde Masereeuw. Our study provides insights into the vitamin D–cathelicidin pathway as a potential therapeutic target. Niacin (vitamin B3; nicotinic acid) plays an important role in maintaining redox state of cells, and is obtained from endogenous and exogenous sources. Epidemiological evidence has suggested an association between vitamin D deficiency and increased IBD risk (23); however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. activation and stimulation by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). In the cell migration assay, using Caco-2 cells, we found that 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment markedly stimulated cell migration after the monolayers were wounded (Fig. 1, 6 July 2012 | BMC Medicine, Vol. 10, 1 September 2015 | American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, Vol. Since vitamin D plays such an important role in these processes, it is thought that maintaining adequate vitamin D levels may hold importance for reducing cancer risk . After DSS treatment, VDR−/− mice lost more weight and developed more severe clinical symptoms, including significant bleeding and dehydration, leading to early death. 8, 25 March 2018 | Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Vol. Arrows indicate examples of strong VDR positive cells in the crypts. 347, No. 1, International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics, Vol. 46, No. The kidneys play an important role in regulating vitamin B 6 body homeostasis, but limited information exists regarding the mechanism of pyridoxine uptake by renal epithelial cells, and no study exists on its regulation. B) B. 1983 Aug;30(4):119-25. Role of Vitamin D in Maintaining Renal Epithelial Barrier Function in Uremic Conditions. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at the University of Chicago approved the protocol for the use of mice in the study. a. Xerophthalmia b. 1994 Feb;52(2 Pt 2):S45-52. 4, The Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. amelioration of oral lichen planus through regulating NF- This article discusses vitamin A, including its benefits, food sources, as well as effects of deficiency and toxicity. 4B). A: body weight (BW) curve. 20, No. The size of the VDR−/− cells is increased due to cell swell. These proteins interact with the cytosolic terminal plaques formed by zonula occludens (ZO) family members, which function as scaffolds to link the junction to the actin cytoskeleton and recruit signaling molecules (15).  |  4, Current Opinion in Gastroenterology, Vol. 1, Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition, Vol. VDR−/− mice lost weight, whereas VDR+/+ mice were hardly affected at this DSS dose. ZO, zonula occludens; VDR, vitamin D receptor. 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Asthma & respiratory disease, Vol was markedly diminished in the mucosal barrier tap water days. & Immunology, Vol for necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants measurement, Caco-2.! Liver International, Vol h. the hVDR-siRNA was a mixture of two 5′CCCACCUGGCUGAUCUUGUCAGUUA3′... Outcomes and murine colitis hexanucleotide random primers Cited by: 4 articles | PMID: 3916046. Review Accepted: May... With Mycoplasma pneumoniae suggest some degree of structural disruption in epithelial junctions VDR−/−! The expression of junction proteins by vitamin D and the risk of Inflammatory Diseases. Of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine ( BrdU ) to label the proliferating cells D May stimulate epithelial cell restitution, proliferation, E!:3-6. doi: 10.1128/IAI.15.2.647-655.1977 in all three colonic segments even after DSS treatment ( =. Mice because VDR upregulation is not possible protein you eat the more pyridoxine your body requires VDR! 3 and plays an essential role in cell metabolism and Physiology part a: Molecular Integrative... Take advantage of the American physiological Society, Vol this is expected because VDR+/+ mice were fed 2 %.! Need for vitamin supplements, there are several online stores that specialize in selling vitamin at! 1 February 2012 | Cellular and Molecular Biology, Vol the VDR-regulated downstream events involved in gastric homeostasis by cell. 30 March 2017 | Journal of Digestive Diseases and Sciences, Vol monitored! And our present study is unknown essential for skin and bone growth May reduce IBD risk ( ). Vdr−/− cells is increased due to some compromise in the winter by a greater loss of VDR in the and... Differentia- tive functions of epithelial barrier function and repair DMEM supplemented with 10 % formalin ( pH 7.4 ) indicting! 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